Plastic pollution has emerged as a prominent and pressing environmental concern in Sri Lanka, presenting a perilous challenge to the nation’s remarkable natural scenery, thriving urban centers, and coastal regions. The aesthetic attractiveness and ecological integrity of previously pure tourist destinations have been compromised due to the existence of plastic garbage.
Moreover, metropolitan areas have not been exempted from the adverse consequences of plastic pollution. Streets, parks, and other public places have become inundated with plastic waste, resulting in the creation of visually unappealing and unclean surroundings. In addition, the coastal regions, characterized by their rich variety of marine habitats and their significance as sources of sustenance for several communities, have seen substantial repercussions as a result of plastic pollution. The proliferation of plastic debris along coastlines and throughout marine ecosystems presents a significant peril to aquatic organisms, the environment and public health.
The widespread prevalence of plastic pollution in Sri Lanka has emerged as a significant issue, demanding urgent measures to address its detrimental impact on the environment and the well-being of the population. The issue of plastic garbage has become a pervasive concern in this idyllic island nation, spanning from the foggy mountainous regions to the captivating azure coastlines. Its pervasive infiltration extends to every corner and crevice, ensuring that no nook or cranny remains unaffected by its ubiquitous presence.
The issue of plastic pollution in Sri Lanka has become widespread, affecting not only urban areas but also other regions. The destructive impact of this phenomenon has extended to even the most remote and pristine areas, affecting every corner of the country. A study by the Marine Environment Protection Authority (MEPA) has unveiled a substantial influx of plastic garbage, specifically amounting to 1,500 metric tones, into the coastal seas of Sri Lanka annually. The accumulation of plastic debris on isolated islands such as Mannar has experienced a notable increase of 40% over a span of five years.
The concerning pattern demonstrates the environmental consequences of plastic waste in rural areas. The increase in plastic garbage has resulted in a concerning ecological catastrophe, which presents a significant danger to the various marine species residing in these regions and disrupts the intricate equilibrium of their ecosystems.
The problem of plastic trash is particularly salient and consequential in bustling and densely inhabited urban regions. According to research findings, it has been shown that urban regions are accountable for approximately 75% of the whole quantity of plastic trash produced on a global scale. The urban centre of Colombo, functioning as the administrative and economic hub of Sri Lanka, is presently confronted with notable predicaments stemming from the pervasive utilization of plastic materials. The accumulation of plastic garbage is a significant consequence associated with this issue, frequently resulting in the obstruction of drainage systems inside urban areas. Consequently, this phenomenon further intensifies the issue of floods, specifically in the monsoon season.
The confluence of plastic garbage with heavy precipitation engenders a perilous circumstance, as obstructed drainage systems become inadequate in regulating the flow of water, so exacerbating instances of inundation across diverse urban areas. The aforementioned outcomes underscore the pressing necessity for the implementation of efficacious strategies to tackle the problem of plastic trash in Colombo, hence mitigating its adverse effects on the city’s drainage infrastructure and general ability to withstand monsoons.
The presence of a considerable quantity of plastic garbage inside the municipal waste of the city is a notable obstacle for waste management authorities. The problem is further aggravated by the extensive utilization of disposable plastics in all facets of everyday existence.
The Sri Lankan tourism sector is experiencing significant growth, but it is also facing the issue of plastic pollution. The accumulation of plastic debris in coastal areas, particularly in beach destinations like Unawatuna and Mirissa, has negatively impacted the industry. Clean and aesthetically pleasing environments are highly valued by tourists, with 85% of them choosing travel destinations based on cleanliness. However, the widespread presence of plastic debris undermines these desirable attributes, impeding visitors from fully experiencing their intended tourism activities.
A survey by the World Wildlife Fund revealed that plastic pollution introduces 8 million metric tones of plastic into aquatic environments annually, impacting marine habitats and affecting around 90% of seabird populations. This pollution undermines the visual appeal of tourist destinations and engenders feelings of dissatisfaction and disillusionment among visitors. The detrimental effects of plastic pollution extend beyond its visual appearance, posing a significant threat to fragile ecosystems, such as marine life.
Plastic pollution has significant ecological implications, affecting marine taxa such as sea turtles, dolphins, and seabirds. The presence of plastic contamination contributes to the annual mortality of around 100 million marine organisms.
Seabirds, in particular, consume plastic waste in 90% of marine ecosystems. These organisms often mistake plastic waste for nourishment, leading to health complications. Additionally, they can become ensnared in various types of plastic debris, such as fishing nets and containers, causing physical damage, asphyxiation, or even fatality. The adverse impacts of plastic pollution on marine animals highlight the need for efficient strategies to mitigate plastic waste and protect marine ecosystems.
A study in the Marine Pollution Bulletin revealed that 87% of sea turtles in Sri Lanka consumed waste products, highlighting the harmful effects of plastic pollution on marine organisms, particularly sea turtles. The infiltration of plastic particles into the food chain also poses a threat to marine ecosystems. Consuming seafood contaminated with plastic particles poses a potential hazard to human well-being, as the average person ingests around 11,000 microplastic particles per year, which can harbor harmful chemicals and poisons. This issue is crucial as it highlights the indirect ramifications of plastic pollution on our overall welfare.
The government of Sri Lanka has recognized the significance of the problem and has implemented a range of steps to tackle the issue of plastic pollution. In 2017, a notable measure was undertaken to mitigate environmental pollution through the enforcement of a prohibition on the utilization of disposable plastic bags. The purpose of this restriction was to mitigate the adverse effects of these bags on our ecosystems.
After the aforementioned initial step, additional strategies were implemented to address various categories of disposable plastics, encompassing straws and containers made of Styrofoam. The aforementioned activities were formulated to broaden the extent of plastic waste mitigation and advocate for sustainable alternatives. Notwithstanding the advancements achieved, there persist obstacles in the realm of efficiently executing and upholding specific measures or rules. The presence of these challenges has the potential to impede the successful implementation of plans and initiatives, hence potentially constraining their overall impact and effectiveness.
Addressing these hurdles is crucial to assure the attainment of the desired goals. Alongside broader-scale activities and projects, there has been a discernible rise of grassroots movements and community-led initiatives in many regions of the nation. Several environmental programes have been implemented to specifically target the issue of plastic pollution. One such campaign is organizing beach clean-up drives, which involve mobilizing volunteers to actively participate